注册免费送500白菜金

欢迎您(nin)光临易事(shi)特!

咨询热线:400-700-1660股票代码(ma):300376ENGLISH

光伏逆变器的选型

发布时间:2015-09-23 作者:本站编辑浏览次数:

    光伏逆变器是太阳能光伏发电系统的主要部件和重要组成部分,为了保证太阳能光伏发电系统的正常运行,对光伏逆变器的正确配置选型显得成为重要。逆变器的配置除了要根据整个光伏发电系统的各项技术指标并参考生产厂家提供的产品样本手册来确定。一般还要重点考虑下列几项技术指标。

    1、额定(ding)输出功(gong)率

    额定输出(chu)功率(lv)表示光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)向负(fu)载供电(dian)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力。额定输出(chu)功率(lv)高的(de)(de)(de)光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)可以带(dai)更多的(de)(de)(de)用电(dian)负(fu)载。选用光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)时(shi)(shi)应(ying)首(shou)先(xian)考虑具(ju)有足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)额定功率(lv),以满足最大负(fu)荷(he)下设备(bei)对电(dian)功率(lv)的(de)(de)(de)要求(qiu),以及(ji)系统的(de)(de)(de)扩容及(ji)一(yi)些(xie)临时(shi)(shi)负(fu)载的(de)(de)(de)接入。当用电(dian)设备(bei)以纯电(dian)阻性负(fu)载为(wei)生或功率(lv)因(yin)数(shu)大于(yu)0.9时(shi)(shi),一(yi)般选取光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)额定输出(chu)功率(lv)比用电(dian)设备(bei)总(zong)功率(lv)大10%`15%。

    2、输出电压的调整性能

    输(shu)出(chu)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)(de)调整(zheng)(zheng)性能(neng)(neng)表示光伏(fu)(fu)逆变(bian)器输(shu)出(chu)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)(de)稳压(ya)(ya)(ya)能(neng)(neng)力。一(yi)般光伏(fu)(fu)逆变(bian)器产品都给出(chu)了当(dang)直流输(shu)入电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)在(zai)允许波(bo)动范围变(bian)动时,该(gai)光伏(fu)(fu)逆变(bian)器输(shu)出(chu)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)(de)波(bo)动偏差的(de)(de)(de)百分(fen)率(lv),通(tong)常称为(wei)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)调整(zheng)(zheng)率(lv)。高(gao)性能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)光伏(fu)(fu)逆变(bian)器应同时给出(chu)当(dang)负载由(you)零向100%变(bian)化时,该(gai)光伏(fu)(fu)逆变(bian)器输(shu)出(chu)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)(de)偏差百分(fen)率(lv),通(tong)常称为(wei)负载调整(zheng)(zheng)率(lv)。性能(neng)(neng)优良(liang)的(de)(de)(de)光伏(fu)(fu)逆变(bian)器的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)调整(zheng)(zheng)率(lv)应小于等于±3%,负载调整(zheng)(zheng)率(lv)就小于等于±6%。

    3、整机效率

    整机效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)表示光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器自(zi)身功率(lv)损耗的(de)(de)(de)大小。容(rong)量较(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器还要(yao)给出(chu)满负荷工(gong)作(zuo)和低负荷工(gong)作(zuo)下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)值。一般KW级(ji)以下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)应为(wei)80%~85%;10KW级(ji)的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)应为(wei)85%~90%;更大功率(lv)的(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)必须在(zai)90%~95%以上。逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)高(gao)低对光伏发(fa)电(dian)系统(tong)提(ti)高(gao)有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)发(fa)电(dian)量和降低发(fa)电(dian)成(cheng)本有(you)重要(yao)影响,因此选用光伏逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器要(yao)尽量进行比较(jiao),选择整机效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)高(gao)一些的(de)(de)(de)产品。

    4、启动(dong)性能(neng)

    光伏(fu)逆(ni)变器应(ying)保证在额(e)定负载(zai)下可(ke)(ke)靠启动(dong)。高性能的光伏(fu)逆(ni)变器可(ke)(ke)以做到连(lian)续(xu)多次满(man)负荷启动(dong)而不损坏功率开(kai)关器件及其(qi)他电路。小(xiao)型逆(ni)变器为(wei)了(le)自身安全(quan),有时采用软启动(dong)或(huo)限流启动(dong)措(cuo)施或(huo)电路。

    光伏产业从欧洲,澳洲,到现在的中国已经成了热门行业,短短几年内国内光伏逆变器生产厂家如春笋般的诞生,不过如何选择太阳能逆变器这个还是有一定的标准。

    首先考虑的是光(guang)伏电(dian)站的规模,是家庭还是企业,不过(guo)在国(guo)内组建太阳(yang)能光(guang)伏电(dian)站还是比较少(shao),主(zhu)要(yao)是房屋结构条(tiao)件等(deng)限制,无(wu)法安装(zhuang)太阳(yang)能电(dian)池板,厂房和企业还是很有优(you)势。小型家庭光(guang)伏电(dian)站主(zhu)要(yao)是针对国(guo)外别(bie)墅安装(zhuang)。

    其次考虑的是效(xiao)率(lv)(lv)。效(xiao)率(lv)(lv)说直接(jie)点就是根发电(dian)量直接(jie)挂(gua)钩,所以现在越来越多的光伏逆变器生产(chan)厂(chang)家对逆变器的效(xiao)率(lv)(lv)作为主要技(ji)术优势来研(yan)发,欧姆(mu)尼克新能源(yuan)微型逆变器在德(de)国(guo)Photon效(xiao)率(lv)(lv)测(ce)试(shi)位居欧洲第一,查看(kan)Photon测(ce)试(shi)对比结果。

    最后要(yao)考虑是否可靠(kao)。光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(fu)并网(wang)(wang)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统是将太(tai)阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池发(fa)(fa)出的(de)(de)直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转化为与电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压同(tong)频同(tong)相的(de)(de)交流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),并且实现既向(xiang)负载供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),又(you)向(xiang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)系(xi)统。光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(fu)并网(wang)(wang)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统主要(yao)由光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(fu)阵(zhen)列(lie)(lie)、并网(wang)(wang)逆变器(qi)、控制器(qi)和继电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)保护(hu)装置组成。光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(fu)阵(zhen)列(lie)(lie)是光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(fu)并网(wang)(wang)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统的(de)(de)主要(yao)部(bu)件,由其将接收到(dao)的(de)(de)太(tai)阳(yang)光(guang)(guang)能直接转换为电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能。目前工程上应(ying)用的(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)(fu)阵(zhen)列(lie)(lie)一般是由一定数(shu)量的(de)(de)晶体(ti)硅太(tai)阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池组件按照系(xi)统需要(yao)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压的(de)(de)要(yao)求串、并联组成的(de)(de)。

    并(bing)(bing)网(wang)逆(ni)变(bian)器(qi)是整个光(guang)伏并(bing)(bing)网(wang)发电(dian)(dian)系统的(de)(de)核心,它将光(guang)伏阵列(lie)发出(chu)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)能逆(ni)变(bian)成220V/50Hz的(de)(de)正弦波电(dian)(dian)流并(bing)(bing)入电(dian)(dian)网(wang)。电(dian)(dian)压型逆(ni)变(bian)器(qi)主要由电(dian)(dian)力电(dian)(dian)子开(kai)关(guan)器(qi)件组成,以(yi)脉宽调制(zhi)的(de)(de)形式向电(dian)(dian)网(wang)提供电(dian)(dian)能。控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)一般(ban)由单片(pian)机(ji)或DSP芯片(pian)作为核心器(qi)件,控(kong)制(zhi)光(guang)伏阵列(lie)的(de)(de)最大功率(lv)点(dian)的(de)(de)跟踪、控(kong)制(zhi)逆(ni)变(bian)器(qi)并(bing)(bing)网(wang)电(dian)(dian)流的(de)(de)功率(lv)和(he)波形。继电(dian)(dian)保护(hu)装置可以(yi)保证光(guang)伏并(bing)(bing)网(wang)发电(dian)(dian)系统和(he)电(dian)(dian)网(wang)的(de)(de)安全性(xing)。

    光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网发电(dian)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)按照系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的设计要求不同可(ke)以分为两种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)一种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)是不可(ke)调(diao)度(du)(du)式(shi)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网发电(dian)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)不含有(you)储(chu)能环(huan)节;另一种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)是可(ke)调(diao)度(du)(du)式(shi)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网发电(dian)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这种(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)含有(you)储(chu)能环(huan)节。在不可(ke)调(diao)度(du)(du)式(shi)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网发电(dian)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中,并(bing)(bing)网逆变(bian)器将(jiang)光(guang)(guang)伏(fu)阵列产生(sheng)的直流(liu)电(dian)直接转(zhuan)化为和(he)电(dian)网电(dian)压同频(pin)同相的交(jiao)流(liu)电(dian),完全由日(ri)照和(he)环(huan)境温度(du)(du)等因(yin)素来决定并(bing)(bing)网的时间和(he)并(bing)(bing)网的功率大小。它的优点是系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)可(ke)以省去蓄电(dian)池而将(jiang)电(dian)网作为自己的储(chu)能单(dan)元(yuan)。

    当(dang)(dang)日照强(qiang)烈(lie)时(shi)(shi)(shi),光(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网(wang)(wang)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统将发(fa)出(chu)的多余(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)能回馈电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang),当(dang)(dang)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)能时(shi)(shi)(shi)可以由(you)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)输出(chu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)能。可调(diao)度(du)式(shi)光(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网(wang)(wang)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统增(zeng)加了储(chu)能环节,系(xi)统首先对(dui)储(chu)能环节进行(xing)(xing)充电(dian)(dian)(dian),然后根据需(xu)要(yao)(yao)将光(guang)伏(fu)并(bing)(bing)网(wang)(wang)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统用作(zuo)并(bing)(bing)网(wang)(wang)或者经逆变(bian)(bian)后独立(li)使用,系(xi)统的工作(zuo)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间和并(bing)(bing)网(wang)(wang)功率的大小可人为设定。当(dang)(dang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)发(fa)生断电(dian)(dian)(dian)或者其它故障(zhang)时(shi)(shi)(shi),逆变(bian)(bian)器自(zi)动切除和电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)(wang)的电(dian)(dian)(dian)气连接,同时(shi)(shi)(shi)可以根据需(xu)要(yao)(yao)选择(ze)是否进行(xing)(xing)独立(li)逆变(bian)(bian),用于对(dui)本地负载(zai)继(ji)续供电(dian)(dian)(dian)。